In all known space, between the stars and the galaxies, an extremely circular glow is eclipsed, a remnant left over from the beginning of the universe. This is the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the first light that it could travel through the universe when it cooled about 380,000 years after the Big Bang for ions and electrons to join environments.
But now scientists have discovered something weird about CMB. The new technology of measurement has shown signs of turning light – something that could be a sign of a violation of parity symmetry, pointing to physics outside the standard model.
According to Model Dale, the standard of physics, if we want to flip the universe as if it were a mirror image of itself, we must adhere to the laws of physics. Subatomic interactions must take place in a mirror in exactly the same way as they do in the real universe. This is called parity symmetry.
As far as we have been able to measure so far, there is only one basic interaction that breaks parity symmetry; It is the weak contact between subatomic particles that is responsible for radioactive decay. But finding another place where parity symmetry breaks could potentially lead us to a new physics beyond the standard model.
And two physicists – Yuto Minami of the Institute of High Energy Acceleration Research in Japan; And Aichiro Komatsu of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany and the Kavali Institute of the Institute of Universal Physics and Mathematics in Japan – believe they have found their clues in the polarization angle of the CMB.
Polarization occurs when light is scattered, causing its waves to propagate in a certain direction.
Reflective surfaces such as glass and water polarize light. You are probably familiar with polarized sunglasses, which are designed to block certain directions to reduce the amount of light reaching the eye.
Water and particles in the atmosphere can also scatter and polarize; The rainbow is a good example of this.
The early universe, for about 380,000 years, was so hot and ga ense that atoms did not exist. Protons and electrons flew around as ionized plasma, and the universe was as opaque as a thick smoky fog.
Once the universe had cooled enough of those protons and electrons to combine into a neutral gas hydrogen atom, space became clear, photons traveled freely.
As the ionized plasma transitions to the neutral gas, the photons scatter from the electrons, causing the CMB to become polarized. The polarization of the CMB can tell us a lot about the universe. Especially if it rotates at an angle.
This angle, described as an angle, may indicate the interaction of CMBs with dark matter or dark energy rays, mysterious internal and external forces that dominate the universe, but which we have not been able to detect directly.
“If dark matter or dark energy interacts with the light of the cosmic microwave background in a way that violates parity symmetry, we will find its signature in the polarization data.”
The problem with identifying with any certainty is the technology we use to detect the polarization of the CMB. The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, which released the CMB’s most advanced observations in 2018, is equipped with a polarization-sensitive detector.
But unless you know exactly how oriented these detectors are toward the sky, it is impossible to tell if what you are looking for is actually β, or what the rotation in the detector looks like.
The team’s technique relies on a comparison of both to study different sources of polarized light and to emit a false signal.
“We have developed a new method for determining artificial rotation using polar light through dust in our galaxy,” Minami said. “With this method, we’ve got an accuracy that’s twice as much as previous work, and in the end we’re able to measure.”
Galaxy sources of radiation are much closer than CMBs, so they are not affected by dark matter or dark matter. Any rotation in the polarization, therefore, should only result in rotation in the detector.
Both CMB β and artificial rotation are affected – so if you exclude the observed artificial rotation in galaxy sources from CMB observations, you should only stay with.
Using this technique, the team determined that 2 is non-zero, with a 99.2 percent certainty. It sounds too high, but it’s still not enough to claim the discovery of new physics. For that, a confidence level of 99.99995 percent is required.
But the findings certainly show that CMB is worth studying more closely.
“It is clear that we have not yet found definitive evidence for the new physics; stat statistical significance is needed to confirm this indication,” said Iichiro Komatsu, an astrophysicist at the Kavali Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe.
“But we’re excited because our new method has finally allowed us to make this ‘impossible’ criterion, which will draw attention to the new physics.”
Research has been published in Physical Review Letters.