Neutron stars are furious ghosts of giant stars: hot, vortex core aliens Matter Supernovas then left behind. Like thermoses filled with hot noodle soup, they take ins to cool. But now, researchers think they know how these stars do it: with the huge help of pasta.
No, the corpses of these ultradence stars are not full of spaghetti. Instead, neutrons cool by releasing eastern particles called stars Neutrino. And a new study shows that they accomplish that task because of an underlying type of substance called molecular pasta, a wavy, coiled material that has almost no molecules, but absolutely no mash. This molecular pasta structure creates low-density regions inside the stars, allowing neutrinos and heat to escape.
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One teaspoon of matter that strikes the surface of a neutron star will weigh billions of tons, which is more than every human being on Earth. That density helps them trap heat very well. And while our Sun, which is thought to be a yellow dwarf star, emits most of its heat in the form of light, the light particles produced inside the neutron star rarely escape it from the surface. Still, these ragging undead stars – about the size of every American city – are finally calmed down by emitting neutrinos.
To understand how they get cool, the researchers in the new study published in the journal October 6 Physical Review c, Took a closer look at the matter inside the neutron stars.
Ordinary stars are made of conventional material, or Atom: Small balls of protons and neutrons surrounded by relatively large swirling clouds of electrons. The interior of neutron stars, meanwhile, is so dense that the atomic structure breaks down, creating a vast ocean of so-called molecular matter. Outside of neutron stars, atomic matter represents the material inside the atomic nucleus, protons and neutrons in the gaense balls. And it is governed by complex laws that scientists still do not fully understand
Pasta is what stands between a conventional substance and a molecular substance.
“Pasta is an intermediate thing between atomic matter and conventional matter,” said study co-author Charles Horowitz, a physicist at Illinois State University. “Eventually they start to touch,” Horowitz told living science. “And when they start to touch, strange things happen.”
At some point, the pressure rises so high that the structure of conventional substances falls into a completely unreliable nuclear broth. But before that happens, there’s a field of pasta.
In the pasta zone, the clump repulsion (the force that separates the charged particles) and the atomic attraction (the force that binds protons and neutrons at very short distances) begin to act against each other. In areas where the nucleus is touched but the atomic structure is not completely broken down, it integrates matter into complex shapes, called “pasta.” Scientists have terms for different varieties of this material: ginochi, waffle, lasagna and anti-spaghetti.
“The shapes really look like pasta shapes,” Horowitz said.
Scientists have known for most of the last decade that this pasta is inside neutron stars, just below the bottom of their territory, where conventional things are transformed into strange, poorly understood nuclear material. And they also knew that neutrino emissions help cool neutron stars. A new study shows how pasta helps free neutrinos.
Zidu Lin, lead author of the postdoctoral research study at the University of Arizona, has created a series of giant computer simulations that show how neutrinos can emerge in this unusual environment.
The basic formula for producing neutrinos in a neutron star is straightforward: a neutron decay, slightly lighter, converts low energy energy into protons and ultralight neutrinos. It is a simple process that takes place anywhere in space, including our sun. (In the second part of this, a huge stream of solar neutrinos flows through your body.)
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But the conditions for this recipe to work must be right. And in the neutron star, the conditions seem wrong.
Neutron stars, as the name implies, have plenty of neutrons, zipping at high altitudes with all motion. But the neutrino recipe needs to create a low-energy proton with almost no velocity. Momentum just can’t disappear. It is always protected. That is Isaac Newton’s first law of motion. (This is the reason why if your car stops suddenly and you are not wearing a seatbelt, you fly out the window.)
Featherweight neutrinos cannot take in all the motion of a relatively large decaying neutron. So the only other place for motion is outside the surrounding atmosphere.
Ga ense, a terrible nuclear matter is a terrible place to accelerate dumping. It’s like driving a sports car at high speeds in a thick slab of granite; The rock will barely move and the car will pancake because it has nowhere else to go to accelerate. Simple models of neutron star emission struggle to explain how neutrons can absorb enough motion to escape.
Lynn’s model Dale showed that nuclear pasta solves most of this problem. It has coiled, layered shapes with low density regions. And the pasta can compress, absorbing momentum at a fast pace. It looks like a granite wall mounted on a spring that compresses the impact of the car.
Researchers have shown that neutrino emissions from nuclear pasta are more efficient than neutrino emissions at the root of the neutron star. This means that the pasta is largely responsible for the cooling.
Horowitz said the research suggests that neutron stars cool more slowly than expected. That means they live longer. History of Space time He had to tweet, taking into account his imaginary vision of the extreme heat of the age.
Published on Original Living Science.