Scientists know that millions of bacteria and other micro-organisms, which live with our courage, play an important role in health, affecting the risk of developing obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes and other conditions. But now a major new international study has found that the composition of these microorganisms, collectively known as our microbiome, is largely shaped by what we eat.
Analyzing the diets, health and microbes of more than a thousand people, the researchers found that a diet rich in nutrients, whole foods promotes the development of beneficial microorganisms that promote good health. But the added sugar, salt and other additives had the opposite effect of eating a diet rich in highly processed foods, promoting gut microbes that were linked to poor cardiovascular and metabolic health.
Researchers have found that what people eat has a more powerful effect on the make-up of their microbiomes than genes. They also found that the food of various plants and animals is more closely linked to the microbiome.
One crucial factor was whether or not people processed food too much. People who tend to eat less processed foods such as vegetables, nuts, eggs and seafood save beneficial intestinal bacteria. Consumption of large amounts of juices, sugary drinks, white bread, refined grains and processed meats, on the other hand, was associated with microbes associated with poor metabolic health.
Co-author of the new study, a nutrition scientist at King’s College London, Dr. Sarah E. “Eating as whole old and unadulterated food as possible goes back to that message,” Berry said. Monday in Nature Medicine. “What this research shows for the first time is the link between the quality of the food we eat, the quality of our microbiomes and ultimately our health outcomes.”
These findings could one day help doctors and nutritionists prevent or potentially prevent certain diet-related diseases, allowing them to give individuals individual diets based on the unique makeup of their microbiomes and other factors.
Many studies suggest that there is no one-size-fits-all diet that works for everyone. For example, a new study found that while some foods were generally better for health than others, different people may have different types of metabolic reactions to the same food, which was mediated by microbes living in their gut.
“What we found in our study was that the same food in two different individuals does not lead to the same microbiome, and it does not lead to the same metabolic response,” D of. Andrew T. Chen, co-author said. Professor of Study and Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital. “There’s a lot of diversity.”
New findings from the International Study of Personal Nutrition, known as Predict, have emerged, the world’s largest research project designed to look at individual responses to food. Launched in 2018 by British epidemiologist Tim Specter, the study follows more than 1,100 healthy adults in the United States and Britain, including hundreds of identical and unofficial twins.
The researchers collected data on a wide range of factors influencing metabolism and disease risk. They analyzed participants ’diets, microbiomes, and body fat. They took blood samples before and after meals to look at blood sugar, hormones, cholesterol and inflammation levels. They monitored their sleep and physical activity. And for two weeks they wore a continuous glucose monitor to find out their blood sugar responses to various meals.
Researchers were surprised to learn that genetics play only a small role in shaping a person’s microbiome. Identical twins have been found to share only 34 percent of the same gut microbes, while unrelated people share about 30 percent of the same germs. The composition of each person’s microbiome appeared to drive rather than drive more than what they ate, and the types of microbes in their guts played a strong role in the health of their metabolism.
The researchers identified so-called good intestinal bug clusters, which were more common in people who ate high-fiber plants – such as spinach, broccoli, tomatoes, nuts and seeds – as well as less processed animal foods. Fish and whole fat yogurt. They also found clusters of “bad” gut bugs that were common among people who regularly ate highly processed foods. One common denominator in largely processed foods is that they contain very little fiber, a macronutrient that helps nourish good microbes in the gut, the researchers said.
The “good” strain of intestinal microbes was privatella capri and blastocystitis, both of which were associated with lower levels of intestinal fat, which accumulate around internal organs and increase the risk of heart disease. These microbes also appeared to improve blood sugar control, which is an indicator of the risk of diabetes. Other beneficial microorganisms were associated with lower inflammation and lower spikes in blood fat and cholesterol levels after meals, all of which play a role in cardiovascular health.
The new study was funded by health science company Zoe Global, as well as British nonprofits, the Wellcome Trust and several public health groups.
Dr. Berry said the findings suggest that by looking at the microbiome profile they can identify people at risk of developing metabolic diseases and intervene as soon as possible. She and her colleagues are now planning a clinical trial that will test whether telling people to change special diets in their diet can change their gut levels of good and bad microbes and improve their health later.
“We think there are a lot of small changes that people can make that can have a big impact on their health that can be mediated by the microbiome.”