A broken ghost particle in Antarctica, the back of a star cut through a black hole

When a star approaches a black hole, it is cut. Scientists have for the first time discovered neutrinos – “ghost particles” from such an event.

DESY, Science Communication Lab

On October 1, 2019, the Earth was moved at almost the speed of light by a global bullet of invisible, high-energy radiation. These billions of intergalactic bullets pass through each of our bodies Second Even without us knowing, so no big worries for the planet – but this particular projectile was special. At the bottom of the world, haunted particles ended up colliding with ice molecules. Luckily, it did just that next to a highly sensitive detector embedded below the South Pole.

The investigation arranged an intergalactic hunt for Celestial Gunslinger. What was shot?

In a new study published in the journal Nature Astronomy on Monday, scientists detailed the discovery of a subatomic mic particle – known as a neutrino – at the Antarctic Icecube Neutrino Observatory. Using data from the Zwicky Transient facility at the Palomer Observatory in California, researchers were able to trace the origin of the subtomic bullet about 100,000 million years ago: the catastrophic destruction of a star because it was cut by a wire. Black hole.

This is the first time such an event has been linked to a neutrino probe.

Neutrinos are often described as “ghost particles” because they have no electric charge and contain small ones. Like light, they basically travel in a straight line from their destination. Other charged particles are at the mercy of a magnetic field, but neutrinos are just barrels from the universe without obstruction. We know that they emit huge amounts from the Sun’s core, and on Earth we can build them into nuclear reactors and micro-accelerators.

In April 2019, the Zwicky facility discovered a bright glow around a black hole about 700 million light-years away. When a star traveled close to a black hole, a flame of light was produced, which is about 300 million times more than the sun. The immense gravity of the black hole pulled the star and eventually it Was spaghettiified, Torn by extreme forces. This is known as a “tidal breakdown” or TDD.

The violent end for Tara is a brilliant beginning for astronomers. They were able to connect TDE to the discovery of neutrinos via icecube. Researchers theorized that TDE threw half of the scattered star into space while the rest settled in a huge “action disk” of hot, bright dust, gas and debris around the black hole. The wild forces surrounding the black hole in the disk result in huge jets of objects being thrown out of the system. This jet can last for hundreds of days and explain the small pause in the time between seeing the TDE and finding the neutrinos in the IDCube.

Astrophysicists reason that this indicates the existence of a “central engine” that acts like a Natural Particles can form accelerating and high-energy neutrinos, some of which can collide with Earth.

Half a year after the start of the constellation festival, the neutrino came out relatively late, said Verter Winter, a theoretical astrophysicist with the German electron synchrotron or DESY. “Our model explains this time naturally.”

Winter and co-author Cecilia Lunardini published their modeling in a similar issue of Nature Astronomy on Monday.

Rendering of an action disc around the artist's supermassive black hole.

Here’s what an attraction disk looks like around a supermassive black hole. Jets flow away from the central black hole. The light at the top of the black hole is actually on the opposite side of the hole – the black hole spacetime bends so that it appears to be riddled with light.

DESY, Science Communication Lab

The discovery of neutrinos from TDD is a breakthrough for astronomers in the hope of understanding the universe in a new way. Scientists have only been able to Pull the neutrino back to its source Once before. It was an ice cube that even investigated it. In 2017, observatory researchers discovered the so-called signature of neutrinos and warned astronomers about the phenomenon. The telescope was able to locate the source of the neutrinos in a distant galaxy that held a “blazer” – a huge black hole surrounded by an impact disc with the purpose of a jet. Straight On the inspector.

Both investigations show that black holes are international gunslingers, firing haunted particles from the deepest depths of the universe. This could help astronomers understand the approaching processes of black holes and even begin to unravel the mystery of haunting astrophysics from the 1960s: where do the sometimes breaking ultra-high-energy cosmic rays come from in the Earth’s atmosphere?

Researchers have discovered many TDEs since the Zwiki Transit facility began surveying the sky, and in the future more sensitive telescopes may be able to combine these high-energy particles with events. Icecube will also be crucial to improving our understanding. The observatory is set to receive an update due to the epidemic during the 2022 and 2023 Antarctica seasons, which should increase the number of neutrino probes by a factor of 10.

Follow CNET’s 2021 Space Calendar Lender To stay up to date with all the latest space news this year. You can also add it to your own Google Calendar.